编目与图书馆目录的功能

      讲图书馆目录的功能,大概可算老生常谈。但至少对于编目员来讲,如果编目时头脑中装着图书馆目录的功能/职能,那么对于著录项目的选择(即判断什么应该著录、什么不需要著录),就会变得容易一些。
    百多年前,克特提出图书馆目录三大功能,即:查询(检索)功能、聚集功能、辨识功能。时代在前进,图书馆目录的功能也在不断扩大。于良芝著《图书馆学导论》(科学出版社,2003)在介绍了图书馆目录功能的发展演变后,总结图书馆目录功能如下(46页):

确认:确认目录所描述的作品或文献是否确为查询的对象。
聚合:即揭示图书馆对于某一特定作者、某一特定主题或某一类型的文献拥有哪些馆藏。
选择:选择能满足用户需要的作品或文献,排除与用户需求无关的作品或文献。
获取:通过文献购置,文献传输,数字化文献的存取获得文献。
导航:通过书目数据间的等同、相关、等级关系从已知作品导向其他作品。

      庸俗一点理解可能是:我们是否为在编文献提供了充分的描述信息?我们是否提供了足够的检索点?我们是否提供了与之相关文献的信息?我们是否为电子资料提供了相应的链接?……
      充分、足够并不意味复杂、面面俱到,而是适可而止;所谓相关也需要适时把握。
      关注读者的检索习惯。编目时需要记录在编文献的独特之处,但不需要记录文献中所见到的一切――须记得问自己:读者会这样检索吗?这些信息对他/她有用吗?
      关注文献被最广泛利用的可能性。在某些情况下作一些分析著录,但如果以现有检索点读者已经可以找到所需文献,就不要滥用分析。

 

 

 

美国国会图书馆克特表:LC Cutter Table

国内西文编目取著者号普遍使用《克特著者号码表》,即Cutter-Sanborn Three-Figure Author Table。该表属于查号法,一大本,又不是按A-Z字顺排列,查找不便。
在国外,国内这一版本的克特表已经很少见了。一般图书馆都采用即时拼号的”美国国会图书馆克特表”。如果新图书馆要用克特表,或者图书馆想改用克特表(如原采用种次号等情况),推荐LC Cutter Table。优势是:
1、LC克特表仅6条规则,一张纸,查找方便;
2、取号长短随意,总体号码较短。小馆可以只取2位(1位首字母,1位数字),即使如美国国会图书馆,一般也只取3位(2位数字)。遇重号时,再加数字。LC的著者号以3位居多,很少见到超过4位的。

附:LC Cutter Table及实例分析

 

LC Cutter Table

1. After initial vowels(首字母为元音时,第二字母所对应数字)

for the second letter: b d l-m n p r s-t u-y
use number: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

2. After initial letter S(首字母为S时,第二字母所对应数字)

for the second letter: a ch e h-i m-p t u w-z
use number: 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

3. After initial letter Qu(首字母为Qu时,第3字母所对应数字)

for the second letter: a e i o r t y
use number: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

4. After initial letter Qa-Qt(首字母为Qa-Qt时,第3字母所对应数字)

use numbers: 2-29

5. After other initial consonants(首字母为其它辅音时,第二字母所对应数字)

<>r

for the second letter: a e i o u y
use number: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

6. For expansion(扩展数字:第三及后续字母所对应数字)

for the letter: a-d e-h i-l m-o p-s t-v w-z
use number: 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

当然实际使用时,需要比使用普通《克特著者号码表》更多的人工干预。因为这个表不是所见即所得的傻瓜式表,时常需要灵活处理:
1、表中没有列出所有可能情况(特别是第2、4条);
2、需要根据已取号码情况调整取号;
3、尽可能为将来到书预留空号,以保证号码短、排序正确。

下面是取自LC联机目录的实例(责任者/分类号 著者号 年份/书名):
Sankar, Andrea / R726.8 .S26 1991
Sapienza, Jerral / R726.8 .S265 2002
Sasaki, Takashi / R726.8 .S27 1997 Japan
Saunders, Cicely M. /R726.8 .S278 2002 / Cicely Saunders
Saunders, Cicely M. / R726.8 .S28 1983 / Living with dying

解释:根据克特表第2条,Sa=S2;根据第6条,n=6, p=7, s=7, u=8:
1、由于Sasaki出版于1997年的书先到,用掉了s=7,取号S27。当Sapienza出版于2002年的书到后,已无法用p=7;按排序,p在s前,可用6,但6已被Sankar出版于1991年的书用掉(n=6),于是改用”6+数字”。为了给q和r预留位置,同时考虑到p之前还有o,最后使用的是65=S265
2、同理,作者Saunders, Cicely M.出版于1983年的书Living with dying用了u=8,取号S28。2002年再来另外一种书Cicely Saunders,同作者依题名排,应在前面,取号尽量接近,于是取S278(如用S279,则将来同作者再来题名介于二者之间图书时,就必须取4位数字了)。

LC克特表的详细使用方法可见LC Cutter Tables: Contents

 

国际十进分类法

      位于荷兰海牙的UDC Consortium目前负责维护《国际十进分类法》,在其主页UDC Website上有与UDC相关的丰富信息。当然,也有UDC的简表和多个通用复分表

UDC大类如下:
0 GENERALITIES
1 PHILOSOPHY. PSYCHOLOGY
2 RELIGION. THEOLOGY
3 SOCIAL SCIENCES
4 留空
5 NATURAL SCIENCES
6 TECHNOLOGY
7 THE ARTS
8 LANGUAGE. LINGUISTICS. LITERATURE
9 GEOGRAPHY. BIOGRAPHY. HISTORY

附UDC简表:

 

Universal Decimal Classification
Summary of classification

0 GENERALITIES
00 PROLEGOMENA. FUNDAMENTALS OF KNOWLEDGE AND CULTURE
004 Computer science
005 Management
01 BIBLIOGRAPHY
02 LIBRARIANSHIP
030 ENCYCLOPAEDIAS. GENERAL REFERENCE WORKS
050 SERIAL PUBLICATIONS. PERIODICALS
06 ORGANIZATIONS AND ASSOCIATIONS
069 Museums
070 NEWSPAPERS. JOURNALISM
08 POLYGRAPHIES. COLLECTIVE WORKS
09 MANUSCRIPTS. RARE AND REMARKABLE WORKS

1 PHILOSOPHY. PSYCHOLOGY
101 Nature and role of philosophy
11 Metaphysics
13 Philosophy of mind and spirit
14 Philosophical systems
159.9 PSYCHOLOGY
16 Logic. Epistemology. Theory of knowledge
17 Moral philosophy. Ethics

2 RELIGION. THEOLOGY
21 PREHISTORIC AND PRIMITIVE RELIGIONS
22 RELIGIONS OF THE FAR EAST
23 RELIGIONS OF THE INDIAN SUBCONTINENT. HINDUISM. JAINISM. SIKHISM
24 BUDDHISM
25 RELIGIONS OF ANTIQUITY. MINOR CULTS AND RELIGIONS
252 Religions of Mesopotamia
254 Religions of Iran
257 Religions of Europe
26 JUDAISM
27 CHRISTIANITY
271 Eastern church
272/279 Western Church
272 Roman Catholic church
274/278 Protestant churches
28 ISLAM
282 Sunnite Islam
284 Shi’ite Islam
285 Babi-Baha’i
29 MODERN SPIRITUAL MOVEMENTS

3 SOCIAL SCIENCES
304 Social questions. Social practice. 
308 Sociography. Descriptive studies of society
311 STATISTICS
314 DEMOGRAPHY
316 SOCIOLOGY
32 POLITICS
321 Forms of political organization. States as political power
323 Home affairs. Internal policy
324 Elections. Plebiscites. Referendums
327 International relations
328 Parliaments. Congresses. Representation of the people. Governments
329 Political parties and movements
33 ECONOMICS
331 Labour. Employment. Work. Labour economics. Organization of labour.
336 Finance
338 Economic policy. Management of the economy. Production. Services. Prices
339 Trade. Commerce. International economic relations. World economy
34 LAW. JURISPRUDENCE
341 International law
342 Public law. Constitutional law. Administrative law
343 Criminal law
343.9 Criminology
347 Civil law
35 PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION. GOVERNMENT
352/354 Levels of administration. Local, regional, central administration
355/359 MILITARY SCIENCE
36 SAFEGUARDING THE MENTAL AND MATERIAL NECESSITIES OF LIFE
364 SOCIAL WELFARE
368 Insurance. Communal provision through sharing of risk
37 EDUCATION
371 Organization of educational and training system. School organization
374 Education and training out of school. Further education
378 Higher education. Universities. Academic study
379.8 Leisure
39 ETHNOGRAPHY. FOLKLORE
391 Costume
392 Customs, manners, usage in private life
393 Death. Treatment of corpses. Funerals. Death rites
394 Public life. Social life. Life of the people
395 Social ceremonial. Etiquette. Good manners
398 Folklore in the strict sense.
396 FEMINISM

5 MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCES
502/504 Environmental sciences. Conservation of natural resources. Threats to the environment and protection
51 MATHEMATICS
52 ASTRONOMY
528 Geodesy, cartography
529 Chronology
53 PHYSICS’
54 CHEMISTRY’
548 Crystallography
549 Mineralogy
55 EARTH SCIENCES
551.5 Meteorology. Climatology
551.7 Stratigraphy
552 Petrology
553 Economic geology
556 Hydrology
56 PALAEONTOLOGY
57 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCES
572 Anthropology
573 General biology
574 Ecology
575 Genetics
576 Cytology
577 Biochemistry. Biophysics
578 Virology
579 Microbiology
58 Botany
59 Zoology

6 APPLIED SCIENCES. MEDICINE. TECHNOLOGY
60 Biotechnology
61 MEDICINE
619 Veterinary medicine
62 ENGINEERING. TECHNOLOGY IN GENERAL
621 Mechanical engineering
621.3 Electrical engineering
621.38 Electronics
622 Mining
623 Military engineering
624 Civil engineering
625.1/.5 Railway engineering
625.7/.8 Highway engineering
626/627 Hydraulic engineering
628 Public health engineering
629 Vehicle engineering
63 AGRICULTURAL SCIENCES
630 Forestry
631/634 Farm management. Plant husbandry
635 Horticulture
636/638 Animal husbandry
639 Hunting. Fishing
64 HOME ECONOMICS
641/642 Cookery
643/649 Household equipment and management
65 MANAGEMENT
651 Office management
654 Telecommunications
655 PRINTING. PUBLISHING. BOOK TRADE
656 TRANSPORT AND POSTAL SERVICES
657 Accountancy
659 Publicity. Advertising. Public relations
66 CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY
669 Metallurgy
67/68 INDUSTRIES, CRAFTS AND TRADES
69 BUILDING

7 THE ARTS
71 REGIONAL PLANNING
72 ARCHITECTURE
73 PLASTIC ARTS
74 DRAWING
745/749 APPLIED ARTS
75 PAINTING
76 GRAPHIC ARTS
77 PHOTOGRAPHY
78 MUSIC
79 RECREATION. ENTERTAINMENT. GAMES. SPORT
791 CINEMA. FILMS (MOTION PICTURES)
792 THEATRE
793 Dance
794 Board and table games
796/799 SPORT

8 LANGUAGE. LINGUISTICS. LITERATURE
80 PHILOLOGY
81 LINGUISTICS
811 Individual languages
82 LITERATURE
821 Literature of individual languages

9 GEOGRAPHY. BIOGRAPHY. HISTORY
902 ARCHAEOLOGY
903 Prehistory
904 Cultural remains of historical times
908 AREA STUDIES
91 GEOGRAPHY
929 BIOGRAPHY
929.5 Genealogy
929.6 Heraldry
93/99 HISTORY
930 Science of history. Ancillary historical sciences
930.1 History as a science. Theory and philosophy of history
930.25 Archivistics. Archives. Public records
930.27 Epigraphy. Palaeography
94 GENERAL HISTORY (Subdivision by auxiliaries of place – Table 1e, time – Table 1g and ethnic grouping – Table 1f))
94(100) History of the world
94(3) History of the ancient world
94(4) History of Europe
94(5) History of Asia
94(6) History of Africa
94(7/8) History of the Americas
94(9) History of Oceania, the Polar regions, Australasia, etc.