什么是最佳实践、技术报告、白皮书?

如题,经常看到这些名词,确切含义到底是什么?正好看到NISO在做一个NISO出版物的调查(NISO Portofolio Survey),对他们出版的这几类文献给出了说明。虽然有针对其出版物的一面,但总体解释还是具有通用性的,抄录原文并翻译如下:

– Standards: The most formal, “fixed” documents that NISO publishes, providing rules, guidelines or characteristics for activities or their results. ANSI/NISO standards are approved by the American National Standards Institute and represent the highest form of stakeholder consensus.
标准:NISO发布的最正式、“固定的”文献,对活动或其他成果提供规则、指南或特性。ANSI/NISO标准由美国国家标准学会批准,代表利益相关者共识的最高形式。

– Recommended Practices: “best practices” or “guidelines” for methods, materials, or practices in order to give guidance to the user. These documents usually represent a leading edge, exceptional model, or a proven industry practice.
推荐实践:“最佳实践”或“指南”,就方法、资料或实践,对使用者给予指导。这些文献通常代表前沿、杰出模型或者成熟的行业实践。

– Technical Reports: provide useful information about a particular topic, but do not make specific recommendations about practices to follow. They are thus “descriptive” rather than “prescriptive” in nature.
技术报告:提供有关特定论题的有用信息,但不对遵循的实践做特定推荐。因此在性质上是“描述性的”而非“规定性的”。

– White Papers, Primers, etc.: contributed or solicited papers whose purpose is a call for action, a position paper, or an educational treatise on a specific issue.
白皮书、入门等:投稿或征稿,目的在于对特定问题呼吁行动、表明立场或教育性作品。

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